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p15RS Attenuates Wnt/beta-Catenin Signaling by Disrupting beta-Catenin.TCF4 Interaction

Abstract: The formation of a beta-catenin.TCF4 complex in the nucleus of cells is well known as a prerequisite for the transcription of Wnt target genes. Although many co-factors have been identified to regulate the activity of the beta-catenin.TCF4 complex, it remains unclear how the complex association is negatively regulated. In this study, we report that p15RS, a negative regulator of the cell cycle, blocks beta-catenin.TCF4 complex formation and inhibits Wnt signaling. We observed that p15RS interacts with beta-catenin and TCF4. Interestingly, whereas the interaction of p15RS with beta-catenin is increased, its interaction with TCF4 is decreased upon Wnt1 stimulation. Moreover, overexpression of p15RS reduces the interaction of beta-catenin with TCF4, whereas the depletion of p15RS enhances their interaction. We further demonstrate that overexpression of p15RS suppresses canonical Wnt signaling and results in retarded cell growth, whereas depletion of p15RS shows an enhanced effect on Wnt signaling. We analyzed that inhibition of Wnt signaling by p15RS leads to decreased expression of CYCLIN D1 and c-MYC, two Wnt targeted genes critical for cell growth. Our data suggest that p15RS inhibits Wnt signaling by interrupting beta-catenin.TCF4 complex formation and that Wnt signaling initiates downstream gene expression by removing p15RS from promoters.
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