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Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2).interleukin-17 receptor D (IL-17RD) heteromerization reveals a novel mechanism for NF-kappaB activation.

Abstract: TNF receptor 2 (TNFR2) exerts diverse roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Here, we report that TNFR2 but not TNFR1 forms a heteromer with interleukin-17 receptor D (IL-17RD), also named Sef, to activate NF-kappaB signaling. TNFR2 associates with IL-17RD, leading to mutual receptor aggregation and TRAF2 recruitment, which further activate the downstream cascade of NF-kappaB signaling. Depletion of IL-17RD impaired TNFR2-mediated activation of NF-kappaB signaling. Importantly, IL-17RD was markedly increased in renal tubular epithelial cells in nephritis rats, and a strong interaction of TNFR2 and IL-17RD was observed in the renal epithelia. The IL-17RD.TNFR2 complex in activation of NF-kappaB may explain the role of TNFR2 in inflammatory diseases including nephritis.