||Rural households are the direct producers of agriculture, their production technology efficiency directly affects the level of grain output. Using the questionnaire data from the hilly region of Anhui province, this paper establishes the stochastic frontier approach in the framework of a Trans-log production function. From the trans-log production function model, we can quantitatively analysis the economic relationship between the output per unit area and the agricultural factors, further calculate the output elasticity. From the efficiency model, this paper examines the technical efficiency and its influencing factors of food production deeply, focuses on the effect of land fragmentation on the technical efficiency. The results show that the agricultural production technical efficiency is only 77.97% and have larger room for technical efficiency enhancement. Land fragmentation can influence rural household’s farmland input behavior, and finally affect the benefits of cultivated land output. The specific performance: with the degree of land fragmentation reducing, labor investment of unit area land gradually declines, the investment of capital increases first and then decreases, the proportion of the fixed capital investment increases gradually, the input-output ratio is declining, the cultivated land output efficiency is constantly rising. In hilly areas, the appearance of surplus-labor input is very obvious in grain production, and land fragmentation causes the use of agricultural machinery in a dilemma. To a certain extent, the subsidy policy of grain production can improve the efficiency of agricultural technology, but the effect is limited. Therefore we should not only increase agricultural subsidies dynamics, but also should pay more attention to making the benefit farming policy which can satisfy the demand of agricultural production. Land quality is one of the key factors affecting the agricultural output, therefore, it is necessary to increase agricultural infrastructure investment to improve farmland quality. Land fragmentation is bad for the technical efficiency of agricultural production and rural households’ technology efficiency of agricultural production gets higher with increasing of the land area. We should try to make the block area larger than 0.1hm2 on which technical efficiency of agricultural production is higher during planning and design of farmland consolidation in hilly...
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