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Adaptive audio watermarking via the optimization point of view on the wavelet-based entropy
Chen, Shuo Tsung
Huang, Huang Nan
Chen, Chur Jen
Tseng, Kuo Kun
Tu, Shu Yi
Digital Signal Processing, 2013, 23(3): 971-980.
This study aims to present an adaptive audio watermarking method using ideas of wavelet-based entropy (WBE). The method converts low-frequency coefficients of discrete wavelet transform (DWT) into the WBE domain, followed by the calculations of mean values of each audio as well as derivation of some essential properties of WBE. A characteristic curve relating the WBE and DWT coefficients is also presented. The foundation of the embedding process lies on the approximately invariant property demonstrated from the mean of each audio and the characteristic curve. Besides, the quality of the watermarked audio is optimized. In the detecting process, the watermark can be extracted using only values of the WBE. Finally, the performance of the proposed watermarking method is analyzed in terms of signal to noise ratio, mean opinion score and robustness. Experimental results confirm that the embedded data are robust to resist the common attacks like re-sampling, MP3 compression, low-pass filtering, and amplitude scaling.
Adaptive; Audio watermarking; Wavelet-based entropy; Discrete wavelet transform; Optimization
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