A single 30 min treadmill exercise session is suitable for 'proof-of concept studies' in adult mdx mice: A comparison of the early consequences of two different treadmill protocols
Neuromuscular Disorders, 2012, 22(2): 170-182.
The extent of muscle pathology in sedentary adult mdx mice is very low and treadmill exercise is often used to increase myofibre necrosis; however, the early events in dystrophic muscle and blood in response to treadmill exercise (leading to myofibre necrosis) are unknown. This study describes in detail two standardised protocols for the treadmill exercise of mdx mice and profiles changes in molecular and cellular events after a single 30 min treadmill session (Protocol A) or after 4 weeks of (twice weekly) treadmill exercise (Protocol B). Both treadmill protocols increased multiple markers of muscle damage. We conclude that a single 30 min treadmill exercise session is a sufficient and conveniently fast screening test and could be used in 'proof-of-concept' studies to evaluate the benefits of pre-clinical drugs in vivo. Myofibre necrosis, blood serum CK and oxidative stress (specifically the ratio of oxidised to reduced protein thiols) are reliable markers of muscle damage after exercise; many parameters demonstrated high biological variation including changes in mRNA levels for key inflammatory cytokines in muscle. The sampling (sacrifice and tissue collection) time after exercise for these parameters is critical. A more precise understanding of the changes in dystrophic muscle after exercise aims to identify biomarkers and new potential therapeutic drug targets for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.
Mdx mouse; Treadmill exercise; Skeletal muscle damage; Myofibre necrosis; Creatine kinase; Inflammation; Oxidative stress