A noninvasive approach to off-face skin laxity and tightening: a review of the literature
Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery, 2015, 34(3): 118-128.
Off-face skin scales tailored to each anatomical site can measure laxity and tightening of the neck, chest, arms, hands, abdomen, buttocks, and medial thighs. Although surgery may be indicated for major weight loss patients, other noninvasive modalities may be considered including: CO, laser, bipolar radiofrequency, monopolar radiofrequency, microfocused ultrasound, and combination therapies. We provide a review of the literature for each modality and relevance to the off-face anatomical sites.