An Orally Administered Redox Nanoparticle That Accumulates in the Colonic Mucosa and Reduces Colitis in Mice
Gastroenterology, 2012, 143(4): 1027- .
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Drugs used to treat patients with ulcerative colitis are not always effective because of nonspecific distribution, metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract, and side effects. We designed a nitroxide radical-containing nanoparticle (RNPO) that accumulates specifically in the colon to suppress inflammation and reduce the undesirable side effects of nitroxide radicals. METHODS: RNPO was synthesized by assembly of an amphiphilic block copolymer that contains stable nitroxide radicals in an ether-linked hydrophobic side chain. Biodistribution of RNPO in mice was determined from radioisotope and electron spin resonance measurements. The effects of RNPO were determined in mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis and compared with those of low-molecular-weight drugs (4-hydroxyl2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl [TEMPOL] or mesalamine). RESULTS: RNPO, with a diameter of 40 nm and a shell of poly(ethylene glycol), had a significantly greater level of accumulation in the colonic mucosa than low-molecularweight TEMPOL or polystyrene latex particles. RNPO was not absorbed into the bloodstream through the intestinal wall, despite its long-term retention in the colon, which prevented its distribution to other parts of the body. Mice with DSS-induced colitis had significantly lower disease activity index and less inflammation following 7 days of oral administration of RNPO compared with mice with DSS-induced colitis or mice given low-molecular-weight TEMPOL or mesalamine. CONCLUSIONS: We designed an orally administered RNPO that accumulates specifically in the colons of mice with colitis and is more effective in reducing inflammation than low-molecular-weight TEMPOL or mesalamine. RNPO might be developed for treatment of patients with ulcerative colitis.
Nitroxide Radical-Containing Nanoparticles; Inflammatory Bowel Disease; Reactive Oxygen Species; Nanotherapy